The Fourth Conference of ASHM 

——“Crossing the Social and Ethnical Boundaries”——




November 4-6, 2008 



Conference Schedule

2008.11.3 (Monday)  

All day

Registration (suggestionvisit the Chama Ancient Route Museum in town by yourself )

2008.11.4 (Tuesday)




Opening Ceremony & Award the History of Medicine Taniguchi Medal


Chairperson: Prof. Liao Yuqun ( Director of The Institute for the History of Natural Science , Chinese Academy of Sciences)


Speech: Prof. Shizu Sakai ( President of the Asian Society for the History of Medicine)


Award Prize: Prof. Shizu Sakai


Award Recipient:


Session I

Room A, ChairZhu De-ming

Room BChairChang Che-chia

1Liang Yong-xuanA study of the records of Japan-Korea conversation by writing in medicine


2Mayanagi MakotoYANG Shoujing’s textual criticisms and publications of medical books, and the philological works by the Japanese scholars who criticized old medical texts in the Edo period.

3Chen MingCross-cultural transmission of medicine from Greek Antiquity to pre-modern Japan: As a case of the recipe “Theriaca of the Four”


4Chin Shih-ch`i:古步识小

1Li Shang-JenMiraculous Medicine in a Heathen Land: Medical Missions to Nineteenth-Century China
2Yan Yi-weiPatients in the Early Missionary Hospitals in China
3LI Nai-shiFrom J.P. Maxwell to Shih-Hao Liu——Research of Osteomalacia in Peking Union Medical College during 1920’s and 1930’s
4Huang Yan-hongFlexible Discovery and its Culture: A history of Acupuncture Anesthesia in China





Session II

Room A, Chair: Liang Yong-xuan

Room BChair: Zhen Cheng

1Qiu LeThe Influence of Taoist External Alchemy to Leigong Paozhi Lun


2Chang Che-chiaThe Foreign Extension of Chinese Medical Theory of Locality
in the Early Modern Period
3Zhen ChengThe Comparative Study of Psychiatry between TCM and Western Medicine ----Both in 19th Century
1Chen Hsiu-fenKnowledge of ‘Nourishing Life’, Technology of the Body and Social Strata in Late Ming China: A Comparative Perspective
2Uchino HannaNurse and Mother’s Milk in East Asia from the Viewpoint of the Life Concept
3Pan XunTang Bo-you战争环境下的社会医疗关怀略论抗战时期大后方的医疗救护




Session III

Room A, Chair: Mayanagi Makoto

Room BChair: Liang Rong


1Han YiPolicies of Benevolence and Conducts State affairs of Medical book: the Spread of Taiping Shenghuifang in Song China——A  Study on Knowledge Spheres of Medical Prescriptions and Society During the Song 960~1279, China

2Li Shu-huiTransmitting and inheriting of medical knowledge in Song dynasty from Su-Shen liang fang


3Wu Zhi-yuan香料与中医

4Liang Rong罗大中Have a restricted view of the Jiangnan medical culture in the late qing dynasty analysing the mistreatment cases inWangMengying medical records


1Aerin Peijung Chiang病人与医者-十七至十九世纪台湾医疗手抄本探讨

2Su Yi-zhang医疗内容的变迁-台湾医疗手抄本的外科病名与症状

3Chang Shu-chingForeign Aid and Transformation of Nursing Education and Practice in Postwar TaiwanA Preliminary Analysis


4Chang Su-bing移民、疾病与环境——以台湾的农业移民为例

2008.11.5 (Wednesday)




Session IV

Room A, Chair: Su Yi-zhang

Room BChair: Chu Ping-yi

1Chen HaoCarving the Formulary on the Rock for Diffusing the Medicine Knowledge to Cure the Sick People: the Fluidity of Medicine Knowledge between Different Estates and Areas in the Records of the Inscriptions and Remdies of Longmen Grottoes in the Early Period of Tang Dynasty


2Liang TongThe evolution of Wu Xing theory in the ancient Chinese divinatory and medical books between Jin Dynasty and Sui Dynasty


3Rong Zhi-yiThe Metaphor of " Xiao Mo "—— View of Medicine and Disease and the Custom of Folk Medicine

1Zhu Jian-ping体质学说:中医与朝医的不同诠释


2Zhang Yu-qingMiddle Western medicine theory is not allowed to comparing with comparing —— primitive thought with concept thought


3Yu Shi-jieDiscusses the Zhuang national minority witch doctor and the Zhuang national minority medicine's origin relations




Session V

Room A, Chair: Chen Hao

Room BChair: Rong Zhi-yi


1Chu Ping-yiBrain Anatomical Knowledge in 18th century China




2Su Jing-jingChristianity During Plagues —— Examples of Black Death in Medieval Age and Cholera in 19th Century


3Li Hua-chengThe Significance of Plague for Intellectual History —— On the cognizance of the Black Death in Medieval England



1Zhu De-mingEpidemics and regional diseases in contemporary Zhejiang




2Wang Jian-guoThe Teaching of Medical Science History in STS Education


3Lan Yong-mei论医学生的人文素质培养




ASHM Members’ Meeting


General Discussion & Closing Ceremony. ChairLEE Jen-der

2008.11.6 (Saturday)




Tour & ExpeditionBaisha town→Dongba


Transported to old town for visit, lunch not included.




List of Participants












Chen Hao






Chen Ming



北京大学外国语学院东语系 ,100871



Chen Hsiu-fen



Department of History National Chengchi University Taipei 11605, Taiwan



Han Yi






Hung Shih-Pei

Institute of Social and Cultural Anthropology, Oxford University





Huang Yan-hong






Aerin Peijung Chiang






Chin Shih-ch`i


duan@ntu.edu.tw duan@nccu.edu.tw; duan@ccms.ntu.edu.tw




Shizu Sakai






Lan Yong-mei






Li Hua-cheng






LI Nai-shi

中国医学科学院 北京协和医学院


北京市东城区帅府园1号 北京协和医院内分泌科,100730



Li Shang-Jen







Li Shu-hui






Jen-der LEE






梁 茼

Liang Tong






Liang Rong






Liang Yong-xuan






Liao Yuqun








日本关西大学 大学院文学研究科


592-0014 日本国大阪府高石市绫园2-5-1-502



Pan Xun






Qiu Le






Rong Zhi-yi



南宁市大学东路188, 530006



Su Jing-jing



北京大学医学部医学史中心, 100083



Su Yi-zhang






Tang Bo-you






Wang Jian-guo






Wu Zhi-yuan

广西民族大学  物电学院






Yan Liang






Yan Yi-wei






Yu Shi-jie







Zhang Da-qing



北京大学医学部医学史中心, 100083



Chang Shu-ching






Chang Su-bing



106 台湾台北市和平东路一段162号台湾师范大学台湾史研究所



Zhang Yu-qing



郑州市金水路一号, 河南中医学院人文学院,450008



Chang Che-chia






Mayanagi Makoto






Zhen Cheng



北京市海淀区学院路38号 北京大学医学部 医史学研究中心,100083



Zhu De-ming






Zhu Jian-ping






Chu Ping-yi



台北南港115研究院路二段130号中央研究院历史语言研究所 台湾









◎◎◎                                                       Section 1-A



A study of the records of Japan-Korea conversation by writing in medicine

In this research, I investigated the medical exchange record in all around Japan concerning the Korean goodwill missions in the Edo period, and conclusively distinguished 27 different records of conversations by writing literary Chinese as only a common language for communication between Korean and Japanese physicians, except duplications of book names, context or locations of possession. The records were found in the total 56 libraries and collections in Japan; of them, the National Archives of Japan has the largest number of records; the other records have been held at the Fujikawa Collection 富士川文庫 in Kyoto University, at the University of Tokyo, at the Kano Collection 狩野文庫 in the Tohoku University etc. This paper also shows the peak of the record number concentrates on 1712 to 1763, when the 8th - 11th Korean goodwill missions [Choson Tongsinsa 朝鮮通信使] came to Japan, and the number of the 1748’s records is the largest. Through a brief analysis of the 27 kind of records, I roughly mentioned the following features: (1) the Chinese civilization had been ingrained in Japan and Korea. (2) The distribution of medical books among the three countries, China, Japan and Korea, is the foundation of communication between the physicians. (3) The most of Korean reputable physicians obtained a mastery of the theory in TCM, adopted the treatments based on syndrome differentiation [Bianzheng lunzhi 辨証論治], valued pulse taking [Maizhen 脈診], had rich clinical experience and adapted TCM to circumstances at will. Contrastively Japanese physicians mainly asked the Korean physicians about pharmaceutical knowledge, and also desired to know diagnostic approach to obstinate diseases and therapeutic experience of them, and emphasized philological and bibliographical works. (4) Every participant physicians in the conversations had certain reputations. (5) Japanese physicians valued to publish the records of the conversation with the Korean physicians. The 27 kind of conversation records, which are held in all around Japan, are therefore not only historical witnesses to medical exchange between Japan and Korea, but are also important reference, which should be continuously examined hereafter, to Medical exchange among the three countries, Japan, China and Korea.




YANG Shoujing’s textual criticisms and publications of medical books, and the philological works by the Japanese scholars who criticized old medical texts in the Edo period.

YANG Shoujing 楊守敬, who had been to Japan from the 13th year to 17th year (1880-1884) in the Meiji era, purchased a large number of reliable books there, and also obtained MORI Risshi’s 森立之 help. Since MORI was a scholar who criticized old medical texts between the end of the Edo period and the early Meiji era, YANG succeeded in gathering a large number of medical books. Then YANG compiled Guyi Congshu 古逸叢書 (Medical Series) and published it in Japan. After returning to China, he had pursued a publishing business. However, until now there has been insufficient research to analyze the whole circumstance concerning medical books printed by YANG and to investigate its background. This paper shows: the medical books printed by him are mainly Isshudo Yixue Congshu 聿修堂醫學叢書 in 8 books (1884); the facsimile of the Song edition of Maijing 脈經 (1893); Wuchang Yiguan Congshu 武昌醫館叢書 in 8 books (1904-12) and others. On the other hand, 451 books of the total 809 medical books in possession of the National Palace Museum in Taiwan are the form of Yangshi Guanhaitang 楊氏觀海堂; the largest number of YANG’s books are Kojima’s 小島 old stock. Kojima, who named Naotaka 尚質, was an official physician of the shogunate. He had two sons, named Naozane 尚真 and Shoukei 尚絅. This triad had worked hard on text criticising and collected many reliable books. YANG visited Japan in the 1890, when the last Kojima family Shoukei had passed away. Kojima’s books therefore became his collection. That is to say that the old medical books, printed by him after returning to China, reflect the Japanese scholar’s philological accomplishments at the end of Edo period, such as the Kojima family’s work.




在明初《回回藥方》的漢語殘抄本中,保留了一個相關藥方的名稱“四物荅兒牙吉”。 荅兒牙吉,對應拉丁文Theriac、阿拉伯文Tiryàq,即唐《新修本草》中的“底野迦”。“四物荅兒牙吉”(Tiryàq al-arba‘t)是由四味藥物配製的一付底野迦方劑,也被當作是窮人使用的底野迦,與使用鴉片、毒蛇肉入藥專事解毒的底野迦略有不同。該藥方至少在古代希臘、敍利亞和中古阿拉伯、中國以及江戶時代的日本文獻中出現過,比較典型地顯示了藥物交流與地域文化變遷之間的關係,可以作爲一個跨越族群與時空交流的藥方例證。本文以此藥方為例,梳理其在東西方的變遷和傳播的歷程,以及多個時代和地域的文化是如何接受和改造這一充滿了傳奇色彩的藥物及其方劑的。

Cross-cultural transmission of medicine from Greek Antiquity to pre-modern Japan: As a case of the recipe “Theriaca of the Four”

As the most celebrated medicinal remedy in recorded history, theriaca (thēriakã /theriac /thériaque) was a ‘universal antidote’ against the bites of serpents, mad dogs and wild beasts, and later became a panacea to cure all known diseases. It was originated in Greek antiquity, and then was prevalent in the Roman Empery. In ancient Arab-Islamic world, Diryàq (tiryàq/téryaqi/theriac) was also a famed and popular antidote. During the Sui Dynasty(581-618CE) and early Tang Period(618-906CE),Theriac(Diyejia底野迦) pills were brought by some Nestorian monks from Fu-Lin region in Western Asia into China, and recorded in Xinxiu bencao新修本草(Newly Revised Pharmacopoeia) which edited by Su Jing蘇敬 in the early Tang. Theriac was a compound medicine containing a lot of ingredients from animal, vegetable and mineral, especially money, opium and flesh of vipers. Along with the transmission of Euro-Asian cultures, European theriac gradually appeared in Syria, Arab-Islamic regions, China and Japan. In King Kanxi’s康熙(1662-1722CE) Court, Jesuits’ theriacs were still deemed to be a kind of ‘sacred medicine’ to treat various diseases. Chinese physicians in royal court also would like to use it. Anyway, It is worthy while to notice the relationship between the use of theriac and religions; for example, the transmission of theriac in Asia depended on the activities of missionaries of Nestorianism, Islam and Catholicism respectively.

In Huihui Yaofang回回藥方(Muslim Medicinal Recipes) which probably copied in early Ming period (14th century), there is a recipe called Siwu da-er-ya-ji四物荅兒牙吉in the 15th Fascicle. The Chinese da-er-ya-ji is a transliteration of Arabic Tiryàq or Diryàqoriginally Latin theriac via Syrian Têryâķê or Têrîrķî. Many Muslim physicians mentioned this Tiryàq al-arba ‘t (Theriac of the Four) recipe, which contains four main ingredients, namely seed of laurel, gentian (jantiyànà), long aristolochia(zaràwand ñawil) and myrrha. This recipe is very different from the above-mentioned theriac recipe that uses opium and flesh of vipers. It could treat poison and other many kinds of diseases, also called “the poor Theriac”. This “Theriac of the Four” was mentioned not only in the ancient Greek, Syria and medieval Arabic world and China respectively, but also in Japanese literature narrated by the merchants or Jesuit physicians from Netherlands. In very different space -time of Arab-world or Japanese islands, this recipe has a few changes so as to make suitable to indigenous herbs.

This paper will discuss the transmission of theriac via sea route with reference to “Theriac of the Four”, a case of crossing the social and religious boundaries. It will discuss the way in which this recipe changed and was received by local cultures in different space-time and also reveal the influence of ancient western medicine on pre-modern eastern Asian regions.







◎◎◎                                                       Section 1-B



Miraculous Medicine in a Heathen Land: Medical Missions to Nineteenth-Century China

This paper examines the controversies aroused by western medical missionaries in China.  The missionaries utilized surgical proceedings with dramatic effects to facilitate the conversion of the Chinese.  However, the emphasis on the miraculous aspects of western surgery had its danger. Many Chinese identified the missionary medics as witch doctors. The Chinese anti-missionary propaganda repeatedly claimed that the missionaries gouged out the eyes of the Chinese for their practice of alchemy, and took away the organs of the natives to produced magic pills and opium. Several anti-missionary riots were instigated by this kind of rumours. This paper analyzes the ways the missionaries imbued their medical practices with religious meanings through rituals and discourse. It also discusses native reactions to the miraculous dimension of western medicine, especially how the anti-missionary Chinese gentry perceived western medical practice as a form of witchcraft through the filter of their cultural resources such as Chinese medical theories, literature and folklore.




Patients in the Early Missionary Hospitals in China

Hospital emerged in Islamic World and in Europe, first to function as a philanthropic institution rather than a clinical center.  Until the middle of the 19th century, hospital patients consisted mainly of those who had been thrown away by the society.

Around this period, medical science and medical profession in the West went through an accelerating process of fundamental transformation. Meanwhile since 1835, protestant medical missionaries, for the purpose of spreading their Christianity, began to bring western medicine to China on a relatively large scale; hospitals thus were chosen as the vehicle in which to carry on medical and religious activities, as well as a doorway to approach the often indifferent or even hostile Chinese common people. Unlike their counterparts in the West, early missionary hospitals in China were placed in a unique social setting where the physician and the patients spoke different languages and held contradictory cultural and religious notions. Yet those rudimentary hospitals put down their roots whatsoever and gradually grew up into well-known local institutions, a change in a large extent effected through the influences that those hospitals had on their patients. The types and attitudes of the hospital patients, in turn, helped to shape the characters of the establishment.  Therefore, when questions are asked as to the nature and practices of early missionary hospitals, there will be a necessity to have clear ideas about the patients they treated.

 Some earliest missionary hospitals in China have left their annual reports, which are the immediate records of their activities into which we still have access today. Quite a few reports noted down cases of special medical interests, and occasionally a statistics of patients’ backgrounds was given. From nearly a hundred such hospital reports, data have been collected regarding the hospital patients. The following questions are asked: (1) Gender, age, occupation of the patient, was he/she poor or rich? How many female patients were there, did the proportion change as time passed? (2) How far did the patient come from? Was he a native? Was he/she friendless? (3) Why did the patient enter the hospital? Had he/she been solicited by the doctor? Had he/she been introduced by a friend? Or was he/she simply driven into the hospital by some intolerable suffering? Was he/she there merely out of curiosity? (4) What disease did the patient suffer from? How long was the duration? Was it serious? Had the patient ever been treated by other physicians, no matter a western or a Chinese one? (5) What was the average length of stay in a hospital? (6) Did anyone pay for the treatment? In what form? What was the attitude of them to diseases and treatments? (7) Why did the patient leave? Was he/she cured? Was he/she discharged by the physician, or he/she went away by their own? (8) What was the attitude of the patient to Christianity? How many converts were there?

In replying these questions, this paper tried to outline the conditions and experiences of patients in the early missionary hospitals, to discuss the discrepancies between ideals held and reality met by the missionary hospitals, and to find out some of the reasons why these transplanted institutions were accepted by the Chinese soil.





From J.P. Maxwell to Shih-Hao Liu——Research of Osteomalacia in Peking Union Medical College during 1920’s and 1930’s

Abstract: With the support of Rockefeller foundation, and with Medical College of Johns Hopkins University as the model, Peking Union Medical College (PUMC) became one of the best medical colleges of Fareast during 1920’s and 1930’s. The research of calcium and phosphorus metabolism of osteomalacia in PUMC not only laid the foundation of endocrinology in China, but also played a very important role in world medical history. The article introduced concisely the condition of this research program, and analyzed primarily the secret of the program’s success. In PUMC, the first person to implement the research of osteomalacia was J.P. Maxwell, the first director of department of gynecology and obstetrics. He investigated the epidemiology of osteomalacia in North China including Shanxi and Shaanxi Province, and L.M. Miles, who was associate of department of gynecology and obstetrics, did some primary metabolic research. After that, The metabolic ward took charge of the metabolic research of osteamalacia, beginning with R.R. Hannon, and following with the team of Liu Shih Hao, the principle members of which were Liu SH, Chu HI, Wang SH, Chou SK, etc. The research about nutritional analysis of Chinese food completed by Professor Wu Hsien, Who was the 1st president of department of nutrition, PUMCmade it possible to do the metabolism research of osteomalacia accurately. Liu Shih Hao was the core person of the research group. After graduated from PUMC in 1925 (the second class of PUMC), he became a resident and then a chief resident in internal medicine. He was the first graduate of the school to be appointed to the faculty in 1930, and rose through the ranks to become a full professor in 1941. He worked with Van Slyke first in Beijing and later during two periods at the Rockefeller Institute in New York. Liu’s group is best known for the studies on bone and bone mineral metabolism, including elucidation of the pathophysiology of tetany, pioneering studies establishing that adult osteomalacia and rickets in children are the same disorder, and important studies quantitating how calcium and vitamin D should be administered for the repair of the metabolic bone disease in osteomalacia. The most famous attainment of this work is the denomination of ‘renal osteodystrophy’ by Liu Shih Hao and Zhu Hsien I, which is now still widely used in the world. However, the research was stopped because Japanese army occupied PUMC after the Pacific War in World War Ⅱ. This case elucidates the successful model of PUMC in early time—the excellent researchers from all over the world brought the advanced concepts and methods, and did plenty of research about practical conditions of China; after that, the thorough research was completed by Chinese scholars.




Flexible Discovery and its Culture: A history of Acupuncture Anesthesia in China

Acupuncture was used for ease pain in surgical operations (namely Acupuncture Anesthesia, AA) in China since 1950s. A history of AA in China is re-constructed by answering six questions; I try to put forward the conception - “flexible discovery” to explain the particularities of Chinese scientific (medical) culture reflected by the history in this article. According to notions of modern main science, AA is a kind of discovery but may not surely be according to Chinese medicine culture. So it can be regarded as flexible. Its flexibility made it was the performance in operations but not the acupuncturists (or anesthetists) that to be concerned. The flexible views on defence tend to pay attention to “there is” more than to “all” in Chinese culture. Thus the efficiency of AA was illuminated by shows but not strict clinic reports, and the negative cases and people were rarely presented on the clinic statistics. There are three different but coexistent frames of explanation to mechanism of AA. The non-exclusive tolerance and acceptance of the theories is a kind of extension of the flexibility.





◎◎◎                                                       Section 2-A




Taoist External Alchemy is the original form of chinese ancient chemistry which originated from china, came into being in Spring-Autumn and Warring Periods ,formed in Qin and Han Dynastyand absorbed by Taoism in the late Eastern Han Dynasty,becoming one of the cultivational practices of Taoismand at the height of power and splendour in Tang Dynasty.It differed from the internal alchemy of physical-mental cultivational pratice which take human body as stoves.It is a kind of witchcraft-science comfused metallurgy which put the natural substances including minerals such as cinnabarleadmercury,and also herbs and animal drugs in ture stoves to clinker by all kinds of ways ,in order to acquire immortality drugs.

During the whole process of original and developmentTaoist external alchemy had close connection with TCM,especially in the prosperous period of Tang Dynasty which took Taoism as state religion.It permeated every aspects of whole society as the upper governing class of Tang Dynasty attached importance to the Taiost cultivational practice,and had remarkable impact on pharmaceutics of TCM.take Leigong Paozhi Lunfor instance.

Leigong Paozhi Lunis the first pharmaceutics treatise of china which was born in the late Sui Dynasty and beginning of Tang Dynasty and renewed in the late Tang Dynasty.It was dramatically influenced by the Taoist external alchemy.

Firsttransfer the Alchemy contraiadicate to the processing Chinese materia medica.for exampletaking bathfastingselecting silent place for the practice of Alchemy which is similar to the practice of processing Chinese materia medica.

Second,take advantage of herbs as excipients to processed Chinese materia medica including gynura bicolorleaves of Zizyphus jujubeleaves of alocasia rhizomeplantainleaves of toxicaria etc.

Third,transfer the practice of Alchemy to the processing Chinese materia medica including levigatinggrindingsealed by six-one mudFu Huo method and closing method.

Forth, transfer the alchemy utensils to the processing Chinese materia medica including porcelain insulatorporcelain boxporcelain potsaucepan sifter and pestle etc.

In conclusion,《Leigong Paozhi Lunis the historic product of the science of processing Chinese materia medica which influenced afterworlds for centuries,reflecting the distinct effect of Taosit external alchemy on the science of processing Chinese materia medica.





The Foreign Extension of Chinese Medical Theory of Locality

in the Early Modern Period

The correlation between geography, food and constitution is a major concerned shared by medical ideas of different system as well as different times. The Chinese ideas regarding environment and medicine could be traced as far as the ancient classics Yellow Lord’s Inner Canon. However, as to the thirteenth century, there developed a new medical theory of locality. Different from the classical doctrine identifying geography by the East, South, West, North, and Middle, the new ideas characterize the geography by northwest and southeast, to theorize the correlations between environment and constitution. They believe that the northwestern land is relatively higher, the food is dense and hard to digest, and therefore people’s body is robust; whereas the land in the southeast is lower, the food is lighter and soft, and thus people’s body is tender. Accordingly different area’s people have their corresponding therapies.

The theme of this paper is to point out that the Chinese medical theory of locality is actually adopted beyond the Chinese border. In the Ming-Qing period (fourteenth to early twentieth century), this theory is also applied to explain the Mongolian and Muslim people living to the Northwest, and even applied to the Europeans, considering their body is more robust than the Northwestern Chinese. As well, the countries southeast to China, such as Ryukyu and Japan, emerged the ideas that their land is even lower than the Southeastern China, therefore their body is even weaker, and people should avoid meat but eat seafood and vegetables. The emphasis of the latter part is to show how the Ryukyu and Japanese physicians considered the extended Chinese medical theory of locality, and how they applied it to provide explanations to the appropriate therapies and everyday life.




The Comparative Study of Psychiatry between TCM and Western Medicine

----Both in 19th Century

The comparative study of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) history and western medicine history is a scientific approach devoted to the comparison of the medical system and their genres, events, people, achievements and methods which appear in different conditions both in China and in western world. The author will dedicate to obtaining an  in-depth understanding of the evolutional process and mechanism of medicine in order to deepen the understanding both TCM and western medicine.

Mental disease is one of the main debases persecuted human early from ancient time, characterized by its close relationship with psychological and social factors. The nineteenth century is an important development period either for traditional Chinese psychiatry or for western psychiatry. The similarity and difference between them and the differentiation process in their development will be highlighted. Take the TCM monographs printed and published in the nineteenth century as the core materials and combined the research articles and monographs on western psychiatry history. The present paper will summarize the similarity and difference in the understanding and treatment of mental illness between TCM and western medicine through the methods such as literature analyzing, historical comparison and analysis of medical cases, etc. And on the basis of such comparison, the author will provide some thinking about the respective characteristic and values of TCM and western medicine. The future direction in the development of TCM will be also presented.




◎◎◎                                                       Section 2-B




Knowledge of ‘Nourishing Life’, Technology of the Body and Social Strata

in Late Ming China: A Comparative Perspective

This paper is an attempt to explore the theories of ‘nourishing life’ (yangsheng) – the specific techniques broadly aimed at physical and spiritual cultivation – and their practices in Late Ming (ca. 1550-1650) China. For a long time, ‘nourishing life’ had played a key role in the traditions of classic Chinese medicine and religion, in particular Daoism. From the mediaeval periods onwards, the initially restricted knowledge to certain social classes including the noble, the medical and the religious began to be widely spread into different fields mostly owing to contemporary rapid changes in society and economy. The social mobility, economic prosperity, emerging marketing system of commodity and advanced technology of printing all helped to secularise and popularise different types of medical knowledge. It is in this context that theories and practices of ‘nourishing life’ interested more people (in particular the literati and the laymen) than ever in addition to medical and religious practitioners.

It was not until the 16th and 17th centuries did the popularisation of knowledge of ‘nourishing life’ reach its peak. Apart from Daoist handbooks and medical writings, numerous late Ming scholars’ literary collections, jottings and family almanacs for daily use too recorded/transcribed a great deal of paragraphs and discourses on ‘nourishing life’ handed down from the antiquity. What these works of different genres demonstrate are mainly the ideas of ‘nourishing life’ and the techniques of the body by means of daily living, sleeping, exercising, washing, eating, drinking, travelling, etc.

To highlight the transition/transformation of ‘nourishing life’ culture in the late Ming, my paper will be focused on the social strata of those who had showed great interest in the issues of ‘nourishing life’. Not only their social statuses and identities (ranging from Daoists, physicians and gentlemen to businessmen) will be detailed in depth, but the aspects of their sex/gender, ages, regions, etc. will be taken into account. In so doing, I hope this paper will contribute a better understanding to the ‘nourishing life’ as a system of life knowledge and body technology modified by the unique milieu of the late Ming. It will also help us to (re)evaluate the characteristics and significance of Chinese ‘nourishing life’ as a whole from times to times.



由于本发表, 把焦点用在乳母表明东面亚洲的生命概念。



乳母制度,多起源于产妇因慢性营养失调而引起的乳汁不足这一社会状况。不过笔者认为,在各种情况下,这种制度都在深层上与东亚独特的生命观念相联。这种观念认为,“婴儿是一种赐予”,而“分娩在忌讳的事情之列”。 在为此、人们不以初乳而用乳母的乳汁哺饲他,从而生成了一种虚拟的母子关系。这就是何以乳母获得的巨大权限,有时甚至超过生母。

Nurse and Mother’s Milk in East Asia from the Viewpoint of the Life Concept

This research considers the past life concept in East Asia, focusing on historical and ethnographic examples of nurses.

In ancient East Asia, there were women as nurses who nurse and raise babies of the noble and wealthy class. The selections of nurses emphasized their following views: their origins, figures, education, etc. Nurses often attended the birth and cut umbilical cords of babies. The fictive mother-child relationships became strong psychologically and physically, and nurses had much effect on their nursing children.

Colostrum contains rich proteins, low fat and lactose, and lots of immune globulin. Its feeding strengthens the immunity of the newborn baby, and this activity stimulates the uterine involution by oxytocin activation. However, in the past East Asia, many people fed not colostrum but the breast milk of others to babies.

Some recipes with carp and soybeans can improve milk flow disorder and prescribe women still now. Nurses were necessary for the social situations that many women suffering from lactation failure. Rather, this nursing system connected to the typical life concept, such as “God bless with a child” and “Delivery is abominable”.







◎◎◎                                                       Section 3-A




Policies of Benevolence and Conducts State affairs of Medical book: the Spread of Taiping Shenghuifang in Song China——A  Study on Knowledge Spheres of Medical Prescriptions and Society During the Song 960~1279, China

Taiping Shenghuifangthe first official medical books, carried out perfectly the confucian policies of benevolence and conducts of medical books, was considered the first national medical book in Song Dynasty. Most people have attached highly importance to the book since then. The aim of the book is to improve the policies of benevolence and the mutual understanding and relationship among Song emperors, officers, doctors and common people. It has had a major impact on the knowledge world in Song China.

My paper focused on this problem, how Taiping Shenghuifang spread in the Song society when it is pressed in Chunhua 3 years of Songtaizong (992)? Which estates took part in the introduction to this book? What they were concerned about? What the spread ways was? What the influence of spread of Taiping Shenghuifang on the medical development and social progress was?

This paper discussed the spread of Taiping Shenghuifang in the Song society after its publication, and also analyzed the purpose and motivation of every social estate. I considered had four estates participation in the spread of the book. The first was the Song emperors and central government. They were very concerned about propagating policies of benevolence and authoritative rule, and also regarded it as a part of governmental rule. The second was local administrative officer. The important role of them was to carry forward official Policies of benevolence and medical knowledge legitimacy. They usually collected available prescription, so that they could prevent and cure epidemic disease, and maintained social stabilization. The third was the doctor. They accepted the pathogeny and symptom of a disease, and used widely prescription of Taiping Shenghuifang. The fourth was the confucian scholar-bureaucrat, Buddhist and Taoist. They focused on introducing the beneficent action of Song State to common people. At the same time, they usually carefully collected every applied prescription, and also magnified the knowledge Spheres. The participation of every estate came into being layered spread and intersectional spread of Taiping Shenghuifang.  Taiping Shenghuifang brought some changes on the development of medicine and social progress in Song Dynasty.




Transmitting and inheriting of medical knowledge in

Song dynasty from Su-Shen liang fang

The past studies about the history of medicine take much more attention on the content of the medical knowledge. Until present, though the medical knowledge in Chinese ancient medical literatures have been well studied, it is not still taken enough importance on the problem how the people in ancient society to acquire and spread medical knowledge. To discuss how the medical knowledge were transmitted and inherited in ancient society, the first problem is data, because there are seldom direct records on the transmitting and inheriting activations of the medical knowledge. But there are many data in ancient medical bookies of prescription, which were not been paid attention on the academe. With the characteristic of simple and convenient, the prescriptions were been thought highly by gentry who were keen on leechcraft. In order to show the efficacy of those recipes, the medical books of prescription not only embody proved recipes, but although emphasize experiences or discerning by the authorselves. Besides ordinary medicaments and descriptions of diseases, it also recorded some other informations, such as derivation and process of those prescriptions. During Song dynasty, the medical bookies of prescription became a great distinguished phenomenon of medicine development at that time. In those medical bookies of prescription, Su-Shen liang fang was not only a early one edited by private, but also had far more influence on later. Moreover the records about transmitting and inheriting of medical knowledge in those books were very full and exhaustive. In addition, both the writers Su Shi and Shen Kuo were famous representatives in the gentry who attached much more importance to medicine in the Song dynasty. First, this paper will introduce the contexts and the edition and the process of transmitting about Su-Shen liang fang. Then it will distinguish which was been written by Su Shi or Shen Kuo, integrate other correlate historical data to review the concrete ways of the medical knowledge transmitting and inheriting activations in Song dynasty, analyze its middle taches and forms, the relationships around medical knowledge and the gentry and other estates in Song society. Moreover, all sorts of social factors which urged medical knowledge released from transmitting and inheriting forms of secret or master or family, abroad transmitted and inherited at the same time will be deeper discussed.



中国使用天然香料的历史很悠久,《诗经》中就提到了不少带香气的植物。但囿以中国大部分地区气候温凉,不太适宜香料植物的生长,秦汉以前仅有兰、蕙、椒、桂第少数解味香料。至晋武帝时,南亚香料始进入中国,及隋代后,东南亚的香料便开始大量涌入。也正是之这一时期,香料才得以渐渐被中医药所吸收。随着中医药和制香业对香料需求的不断增大,香料的用量也逐渐增多。至唐、宋、元、明、清各时期,海外盛产的香料更是源源不断地通过“海上丝绸之路”输入福建泉州港,再转往全国各地。香料作为外来的物产,对中医的影响也就越来越大,宋时许多福建名医均采用东南亚诸国的香药调配药方,成为民间常用的药品, 以致外来的香料与本土中医药的关系日益融合,在极大地丰富了中医药文化的同时,也彰显了不同民族、不同国度、不同文化之间相互作用、影响和发展的特质。





Have a restricted view of the Jiangnan medical culture in the late qing dynasty

analysing the mistreatment cases inWangMengying medical records

    Try to Comprehend the characters of medial culture of the patients faced by Jiangnan doctores by analyzing the cause of mistreatment cases in WangMengying medical records

    There are about 644 cases recorded in theWangMengying medical records and 16 diseases are refered in the first volume which can be summarized as exogenous disease41 kinds of diseases and one chapter of mixed treatment are involed in the second volume which can be summarized as internal diseases. there are large quantity of mistreatments sorted by WangMengying in the records, In 362 cases of exterior disease, 214 of them are mistreatment which achieved at 51%, and 168 cases are mistreatment in the 284 cases of internal diseases, achieved at 59.2%. The category of the mistreatment can be sum up to be 11 kinds such as: worm to disperse coldworm tonifying , nourishing yin, purgating, inducing astringency , clearing away heat, dispersing the depressed liver-energyexpelling winddepriving the evil wetnessreplenishing blood, relieving dyspepsia. The top three ratiot in exogenous disease is: worm tonifying102case47.7%)、warm to disperse cold (87case,40.7%), and nourishing yin20case9.3%);The top three ratio in internal disease is: worm tonifying98case58.3%)、warm to disperse cold46case27.4%)、nourishing yin18case10.7%. Whether the diagnosis is correct and the prescription can be taken is always determined by the patients himself and the family member when treating disease. Even the patients guide the cure according to their own knowledge of the body and medicine. And the doctor often cater to the requests of patients. Tt's worth noting especially that the identification of the mass to the tonifying culture and the health cultivation methods adopted by patients comprises an important component within the mistreatment inWangMengying medical records.




◎◎◎                                                       Section 3-B













本文擬以「國際援助與戰後台灣護理教育與實踐之轉變:一個初步的觀察」為題,探討195060年代於台灣護理界的轉變。1949年,隨著國民政府遷台的國防醫學院等軍醫體系,將以「美式醫療」為主體的協和體系,帶入台灣。美國醫藥在華促進會(ABMAC)、中國農村復興委員會(JCRR)、以及1951年開始運作的美援會Council on US Aid (CUSA),提供獎助學金至美國進修,WHOUNICEF也提供部分的資助。台灣的護理教育開始走向「現代美式護理」之路。




Foreign Aid and Transformation of Nursing Education and Practice in Postwar TaiwanA Preliminary Analysis

This paper provides an analysis and investigation into international organizations’ influence in the development of nursing education and practice in Taiwan during the 1950’s and 60’s.

In 1949, the Kuomintang government relocated to Taiwan and reestablished the system of Peking Union Medical College (PUMC) on the island. It was during this time that the Wartime Health Personnel Training Center and the Army Medical College introduced medical training based on the American medical system.

In 1951, aid from the United States and organizations such as the American Bureau for Medical Advancement in China, Inc. (ABMAC) and Joint Commission on Rural Reconstruction (JCRR) offered grants to Taiwanese medical personnel to study in America. WHO, UNICEF also played part in providing scholarships and assistance. It was during this period that the nursing education and practice began to be based on the modern American nursing.

This paper is presented in three sections. The first section explains the origin, formation, and introduction of the Peking Union Medical College and foreign aid in Taiwan. These are based on biographies and memoirs from old retired doctors and the history of the National Taiwan University College of Medicine or the National Defense Medical Center. These historical accounts all credit the aid received from the United States and other international organizations: ABMAC, JCRR, and WHO. These organizations supplied the medical equipment; provided financial assistance in the construction of facilities; or gave scholarship grants for the training of medical personnel. The accounts also highlight the positive influence of PUMC after its arrival in Taiwan, which brought its system and manpower.

The second section explains the reform of nursing education and practice. Using foreign aid, the Taiwan government began to select excellent nurses or nursing educators and sent them abroad to pursue research or further training and education. At the same time, nurses and nursing educators from renown universities, such as Howard University, were invited to Taiwan to give counseling or instruction. It was then that the nursing tradition under the Japanese colonial period was gradually replaced by modern American nursing.

The third section is on the feedbacks given by the Taiwan nursing community about the modern American nursing system.

In summary, this paper attempts to reflect on the influence of foreign aid to Taiwan and stresses the impact of international aid organizations’ “patriarchal style” on Taiwan’s nursing development. The paper examines the reaction of society and local citizens when new medical systems or concepts were transferred to Taiwan and how the new systems or concepts were adapted or modified.









◎◎◎                                                       Section 4-A

1、陈昊:    刊之岩石、传以救病—龙门石刻药方与题记所见唐代初期方药知识在阶层与地域之间的流动



Carving the Formulary on the Rock for Diffusing the Medicine Knowledge to Cure the Sick People: the Fluidity of Medicine Knowledge between Different Estates and Areas in the Records of the Inscriptions and Remdies of Longmen Grottoes in the Early Period of Tang Dynasty

The Cave No. 1387 of Longmen Grottoes in Henan Province, known as Yaofangdong, is named after the remedies carved on the arch of it. It lies at the south section of West Longmen Mount. The remedies which should be carved in the early period of Tang dynasty, are used to be considered as being carved in 577 AD by mistake, the third year of Wuping of the North Qi Dynasty, in the book called “The Collection of Epigraph” (Jinshi Cuibian). It’s one of the most important sources of the medical history in medieval China. But there is no records on who carves them or supports them, so there is no agreement on the source of the remedies and which people could get to know the medicine knowledge from the cave. Based on the research on the time of the carving of remedies, we collect the inscriptions of Longmen Grottoes around the early period of Tang dynasty to analyze the social network of how the remedies have been diffused at the time. When we collect the data, the timing is not the only thing that we pay attention to, but also we pay a lot of attention to which cave we get them and which position is the cave of the Cave No. 1387. Based on the research of which part of Cave No. 1387 the formulary has been carved, we are trying to get to know the social function of Cave No. 1387 in the early period of Tang dynasty and how the social function influences the diffusion of the remedies.

Several medicine manuscripts found in Dunhuang by Stein named “Single Ingredient Verified Remedies to Prepare for Emergencies” (Beiji danyan yaofang), have various textual parallels with the remedies of Longmen Grottoes. They mention that they should carve the formulary on the rock for diffusing the medicine knowledge to cure the sick people. It’s supposed to be an important way to diffuse the medicine knowledge by carving it on the rock, and sick people can get it for the rock or hearing for other people have seen the remedies carved on the rock. But the question is that how and by who does the remmdies carved on the rock spread to other places. In ancient China, the fluidity of groups and the diffusion of the knowledge are relevant to the identity and estate and the possibility of the transportation. The bureaucracy of the country is one of the most important dynamic powers of the social mobility. When we analyze the data of the places where do the members of the royal family and officers go to, the start and the destination of their journey are relevant to the bureaucracy. The cause of the mobility of the royal family and the officers of capital are different form the officers of the local government. It’s easier for the officers to go to somewhere than the normal people. The Longmen Grottoes is close to Luoyang, the Eastern Capital (Dongdu or Shendu under the reign of Wu Zetian) of Tang Empire, which is the center of inner China. It is the hinge of the military and commercial affairs of Tang Empire. The Longmen Grottoes has been one of the Buddhism centers which has the most convenient traffic condition. It’s a good choice to carve the remedies on one of the cave of Longmen Grottoes. The further question is that how is the relation between the remedies carved on the rock and the formulary on the remedies in medieval China. How does the interaction between epigraph and manuscript make the diffusion of knowledge easier?

But the belief power of Buddhism becomes one of the ways to cross the boundaries of different estates and areas in medieval China, which makes the dynamic power of the social mobility of the believers. The monks and believers from different areas and countries come to Longmen Grottoes, and it is possible they will see the remedies and bring them back. For example, the Longmen remedies are brought back to Japan by monks who come to Tang Empire and collected in their medicine books. Besides the monks, the physician officers and the sick people come to Longmen Grottoes and pray for curing, who will pay more attention to the formulary currently. It will help us to know how is the knowledge of medicine diffused between the monks and common believers through the influence of Buddhism. Though we admit the diffusion of the formulary is influenced by the social network constructed by Buddhism belief, we do not think that it proves the remedies of Longmen Grottoes come from the medicine knowledge of monks of temples in Longmen. Both the formulary of Longmen Grottoes and the “Single Ingredient Verified Remedies to Prepare for Emergencies” (Beiji danyan yaofang) found in Dunhuang are parts of the popular medicine culture in Tang Dynasty. Officers, monks and doctors collect the prescriptions which are heard to have good effects, try them, give them to relatives and friends and compile them to a patient’s emergency handbook devoted chiefly to remedies for such common diseases. There are prescriptions influenced by Buddhism medicine absolutely. But the most significative feature of the formulary composed by these prescriptions is the fluidity of knowledge which is not only between the between different estates and areas but also between the monks and common believers.






The evolution of Wu Xing theory in the ancient Chinese divinatory and medical books between Jin Dynasty and Sui Dynasty

The Yin-yang and Wu Xing theories are regarded as the foundation to the understanding of the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM)(Li, 2002). In addition, the Wu Xing theory (also treated as a theory about five basic phases including Metal, Wood, Water, Fire and Earth) in particular, is thought to enhance the holistic character of TCM (Liu, 1982). The Wu Xing perspective is even regarded as “the thinking law and the common belief of the universe system of Chinese people” (Gu, 1982).

Based on the relationships and correspondence among particular substances and five Xings, the Wu Xing theory tries to cover most things in the world by establishing a delicate symbolic frame system. Not only climates, seasons, colours and tastes but also tissues and organs et al have been classified into five different categories symbolised by “Metal, Wood, Water, Fire and Earth”, which serve as the foundation of the unique thinking pattern in which the Wu Xing intertwined model was developed. Besides, Xing originally represented the four-legged intersection which were derived from the similar figure of ancient Chinese character “Xing” with “Jing” (square-fields), and signified the road or street crossings. (Ren, 1979) Thus Xing is thought to carry the meaning of dynamic process or changes, which helps to understand the unique thinking pattern that Wu Xing theory is based on.

The Wu Xing theory generated in Shang and Zhou Dynasties, developed in the Spring and Autumn and Warring States period and flourished in Han Dynasty (Liu, 1993). The Wu Xing theory has spread to such as medicine, astrology, meteorology and social administration of that time. It is important that the Wu Xing theory has a strong impact on ancient Chinese medicine of Han Dynasty. People and doctors of the time got used to reasoning and analysing the symptoms of diseases.

It is thought that there are three divided (or called “reform”) periods, i.e. the Spring and Autumn and Warring States period, the period between the Eastern Han Dynasty and the Three Kingdoms and the period of the Republic of China (Li, 2007). According to Xie’s opinions, the years between the Jin Dynasty and Tang Dynasty are a period of searching, collecting and summarizing the academic works of ancestors (Xie, 1997).

There could hardly be so many great medicine books if the scholars between the Jin Dynasty and Sui Dynasty did not make their efforts and contributions to academic compilation. For instance, Emergent Prescriptions behind elbows (Zhou Hou Bei Ji Fang) By Ge Hong, Classics of Acupuncture and Moxibustion (Zhen Jiu Jia Yi Jing) by Huangfu Mi, Classics of Mai (Mai Jing) by Wang Shuhe and On Derivation and Symptoms of Diseases (Zhu Bing Yuang Hou Lun) by Chao Yuanfang are famous ancient medical books which play significant roles in the development of TCM. Moreover, it is interesting that the word “Wu Xing” is found repeatedly in books mentioned above.

Since the ancient medicine have quite a few correlations with the ancient divination particularly in Wu Xing theory (Li, 2000), it is no doubt that the studies of ancient medicine and divination should be carried on in coordination. Between Jin Dynasty and Sui Dynasty, such as Classics of Real Mirror (Yu Zhao Ding Zhen Jing) by Zhang Yong, Secret Gardens of Heaven (Ling Tai Mi Yuan) by Yu Jicai and General Theory of Wu Xing (Wu Xing Da Yi) by Xiao Ji mentioned or quoted Wu Xing theory once and again. Wu Xing theory as a branch of ancient divination, still remains mysterious in its function for the persistent interaction between ancient medicine and divination.

In short, the Wu Xing theory can be regarded as a thinking method consist of five pivotal phases (or processes) that represent a dynamic and vital analogy between the complex system of Nature and five phases corresponding to relevant characters. With an association of ideas according to the delicate symbolic frame system represented by Wu Xing theory, ancient Chinese magicians and doctors were capable of understanding and analyzing life, society and nation as a whole intelligibly.




The Metaphor of " Xiao Mo "

______ View of Medicine and Disease and the Custom of Folk Medicine

"Xiao Mo " 消魔 ( kill the evil spirit) was the Taoist priest’s call to the medicine, which began in the Eastern Jin Dynasty. But it is not accidental that the Taoist priests called the medicine " xiao mo", it was closely related with the ideas of medicine and disease with TaoimTaoism has inherited and developed the idea that everything has its spirit, and every part in the bodies of people has the spirit corresponding with it, if the god leaves the body, then the corresponding component will fall ill. Certainly, the god will not leave the body gratuitously, they are invaded and harassed by evil spirit and leave the body by force, which cause the body to fall ill because of lacking the god. So, if you want to cure the disease , you should kill the evil spirit soon at first. In this sense, every things that can kill the evil spirit can all be called medicines, and the medicine called " xiao mo " by the Taoist priest because it has function of killing the evil spirit too. In fact, in the faith of Taoism, besides various god, there are various of evil spirit, and every evil spirit has to face the medicine to eliminate them, like this, just there is various informative medicine different in kind in Taoism. The Common herbaceous can cure the disease, because they can eliminate the evil spirits who invade the body, and let the god leaving away return in the body again. The god of the liver is attacked by the evil spirit and left away, the liver will fall ill. So, the herbaceous can eliminate the evil spirit in the liver are the medicines curing hepatopathy; those eliminate the evil spirit well is the good medicine, they are so-called “Di Wang Cao” 帝王草(“Emperor Grass " )“Da Chen Cao”大臣草(" Minister Grass ") “Ren Min Cao " 人民草(" People Grass ",) Even , the picture and language such as Fu, Lu, Zhou, Jue can be regarded as medicine by the Taoist Priest too just because they  have the same function of eliminating the evil spirit. These Taoism’s view of medicine and disease not only changed the mode of becoming the celestial being, the means of curing the disease, the method of practising and course of pharmacy with a great extent,  but influenced the folkways and customs and the medicine activities deeply. These Taoism’s view is the historical result of the interacting and influencing in medicine and folk traditional culture.




◎◎◎                                                       Section 4-B








Middle Western medicine theory is not allowed to comparing with comparing __________primitive thought with concept thought  

Doctor of traditional Chinese medicine academic theory is mature before Qin times, soil draws the culture cultivating it from hundred schools of thinkers nutrient. Conceptual no late philosophy forming Yu year such as Yin and Yang , vitality , the five elements the Warring States period, is in the Confucian School shape "easy to be able to say with Yin and Yang" has but simultaneous that wisdom philosophy ascertains, that medicine family Zhang Zhong Jing Qin  gathers Bogu's research result is to say with Yin and Yang "Treatise on Febrile Diseases " , conceptual Yin and Yang thought development in not having hesitated to embody object developing process changes, Middle scenery brings this thinking model into play in "Treatise on Febrile Diseases " having arrived at realistic portrayal of character , pulse floats if strong for disease , the head item of the sun is painful. Or float tight or float slow or person's back by force almost almost, have been having the Chinese ephedra soup , the cassia twig right now the soup , the root of kudzu vine soup part for the major functions of a drug diversity and so on, have embodied not determinacy disease phenomenon development change in developing process middle Yin and Yang with time substantiality , have belonged to the art pattern that the chance judges, Even if it still belongs to limited thought philosophy , the cause handling this deepest arrangement of ideas from thought so with Hegel system of philosophy principle final conclusion, it is to take oneself experience as the leading factor logic construction thought according to primitive. But west medical science steps off from ancient times experience medical science, "modern times happening with Weisaliusi in science revolution the modern times structure of the human body " is a sign, prompt the new theory canonical form supersedure , from the discipline differentiation classifying to analyse a shape but upper learning of demonstration standard the primitive thinking model having decided doctor of traditional Chinese medicine as plain as the nose on one's face and the concept thought form difference scientize naturally at the modern times appear. Because of it is to take the experience about the marriage partner as leading factor, the logic constructs the basis thought. The former has shown the disease phenomenon developing process middle development change's deciding on art , the latter has testified the analytical reliable demonstration medical science shape but upper learning has standardized. The former belongs to the phenomenon concre , that the latter belongs to from this Er Yan  middle concrete thought Western medicine theory is no comparable. This both are that one kind of each's tradition culture philosophical thinking is aware of what spirit soil is fraught with the history necessity growing out. But be not logic necessity.





 Discusses the Zhuang national minority witch doctor and the Zhuang national minority medicine's origin relations  

The relations between Zhuang national minority witch doctor and the Zhuang national minority medicine are very close.Especially in the ancient time when the Zhuang  national minority medicine just germinated,the initial Zhuang national minority popular medicine stems from the Zhuang national minority witchcraft,but Zhuang national minority folk doctor forms from the Zhuang national minority witch doctor,and the Zhuang national minority witch doctor comes from the Zhuang national minority sorcerers.

The initial Zhuang national minority witch doctor comes from the Zhuang national minority sorcerer.At the ancient times the Zhuang national minority sorcerer were both engaged in the witchcraft activity, and the manner of treated disease, the witch and the medicine are mixed, therefore there were the sayings of“the medicine stemming from the witch” and “the medical witch are homologic”.Under the primitive religion belief's influence,  the Zhuang national minority people at the ancient times believed that the human falls ill is the result which the ghosts and gods cause ,The only way to cure is asking the sorcerer pray the god to expel evil spirits.Therefore, when the human falls ill, the sorcerer then becomes the initial witch doctor who give the people treatment.When Witch doctor pay a treatment, They use the incantation, invocation, the dance, to offer sacrifices and so on witchcraft activities to pray which the god expels evil spirits, also use some Chinese medicine and the bloodletting, methods of taking ash and so on to assist and  treat,Then they become the initial folk doctor.In order to expel evil spirit and treat an illness,The Zhuang national minority witch doctor often carry on all kinds of witchcraft activities of praying gods and expeling ghosts,Some reasonable, positive procedure, like the request of each household cleaning the garden and seals the stronghold etc in the witchcraft activity,after posterity's critique, inherits, it has become the scientific method in the modern Zhuang medicine. The process of witch doctor's production and the development is an unreplaceable historical stage in the history of the Zhuang national minority medicine's production and development.




◎◎◎                                                       Section 5-A

1、祝平一:Brain Anatomical Knowledge in 18th century China

This paper investigates how the brain was conceptualized in  China after the transmission of European anatomical knowledge.  A study like this always faces the danger of judging scientific achievements of China according to modern scientific criteria. It also easily leads to the misunderstanding that one is attempting to understand whether the Chinese people is more open to foreign knowledge and thus more capable of improving their scientific capacity. I have no interest in these issues which may bother some modern researchers.  My main concern is rather to describe how the people in the early Qing appropriated foreign knowledge so as to shed light on the process of the travel of European science in East Asia and its consequences. For this purpose, I choose to discuss how the Chinese envisioned and imagined the European anatomical brain in the 18th century.




Christianity During Plagues

——Examples of Black Death in Medieval Age and Cholera in 19th Century

Different history stages, different classes of the society, different areas and different governments demonstrated different response towards the outbreak of plagues. As one of the religions with the longest history and one of the most influential religions, Christianity inevitably had to offer an explanation for the outbreak of plague and respond to it. This paper will discuss how Christianity responded to black death in 14th century in Europe and how Christianity responded to cholera in 19th century in America correspondingly. Although the public opinion considered both plagues as the punishment of God and in both cases people begged His pardon and forgiveness, the specific responses in both cases are different. In balck death, the radical “lash movement” was conducted while in the latter case, people turned to government’s department and tried to persuade the president to adopt religious movement as measures against the plague and to set National Fast Day and People’s Prey Day. The differences demonstrated that Christianity “evolved” with the social environment which represented the turnover of public’s attitude towards diseases. This paper will probe into the possible explanation for this turnover and evolvement from the perspectives of medicine, society and culture.







The Significance of Plague for Intellectual History

-----On the cognizance of the Black Death in Medieval England

To the Black Death, the sociality of the medical in England practice had represented on the people’s knowledge of it and which was the premise of the cure to the epidemic. With the limitations of the medicine, people at that time were hard to make correct judgement, they mystified the plague and thus formed three interpretations: Punishmenteschatology and astrology. Punishment eschatology made interpretation about the concrete event in regard of the Christian tradition, both were subject to the religious chain of “ origional sin- atonement- trial”and thought the plague were the punishment of humans evil. They also had different in some aspects. Punishment was the church’s judgement of the realistic castrophy, they thought the degradation of the social morals was the main cause of the God’s anger. Punishment had became the the main interpretation of the Black Death because the church took the lead of propaganda and organization. As the advocator of the Punishment, the orthodox church did not believe the world would come to the end, on the contrary, they thought the Punishment was the prophesy to the end of the day and declared the Black Death was the  catastrophy of the coming of the Antichrist. This kind of prophesy mostly denied the church’s instructions and rules and was denounced and abondoned by the orthordox church and the royal power. The astrology had attributed the Black Death to the motion of celestial bodies and on basis of the integratation of theology and astrology the astrologists asserted the cross of the eclipse and the conjunction of Saturn and Mars and Jupiter in Aquarius was the main cause of the Black Death.




◎◎◎                                                       Section 5-B



Epidemics and regional diseases in contemporary Zhejiang

During the Daoguang-Xianfeng period, epidemics usually broke out in South of Zhejiang. From the late Daoguang period to Tongzhi period, with the beginning of Taiping Rebellion, epidemics frequently broke out in the Northwest of Zhejiang and were connected with the epidemic situation in southern Jiangsu and Anhui. the epidemic situation covered a large area and cost a lot of people’s lives. After the crake down of Taiping Rebellion, epidemics occurred occasionally. The major ones were black plagues, cholera, and malaria. In the starting two years of Tongzhi period, the epidemic situation in Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Anhui was almost unprecedentedly serious. By our estimate, the late part of Qing Dynasty, Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Anhui were the most seriously affected areas by epidemics. For 13 years, epidemics occurred in Zhejiang, making it the most epidemically active area in the whole country since the Ming Dynasty. The same was true during the Republic of China period. Epidemic situations in contemporary Zhejiang mostly occurred during Daoguang, Xianfeng, and Tongzhi period and were war-incurred. After we reviewed the epidemic situations, regional diseases, and their damages in Hangzhou, Ningbo, Wenzhou, Huzhou, Jinhua, Quzhou, Zhoushan, Taizhou, Lishui and another three areas, we concluded that Zhejiang was among the most seriously affected areas by epidemics in contemporary China.




The Teaching of Medical Science History in STS Education

The themes of STS education not only comprise the education of science and technology, but also include education in such aspects as the clarification of the sense of social responsibility, the enhancement of the citizens’ service awareness, and the establishment of correct world view, outlook on life, morality, and values. The various educational functions of medical science history dwelled upon in this thesis thoroughly reflect and also verify the new educational thoughts in STS education.

Since STS education is comprehensive education integrating science education, technology education and social education, for medical education the education of medical science history is the basis of STS education and is the first and compulsory course in medical colleges and universities.

The importance of the teaching of medical science history in STS education has been receiving ever-increasing attention. This is a positive effect resulting from the mutual interaction between the development of contemporary science and technology and the new demands of medical education. In this effect, the characteristics and the important functions of the discipline of medical science history are being made clearer and clearer, and finally this discipline has become a bridge and a link between nature and society, between science and technology, between medicine and humanities, between knowledge and civilization, between development and harmony. Its educational functions can strengthen the root of STS education in medical colleges and universities. Therefore, fully understanding the educational functions of medical science history and carrying out STS education leading the students in the directions of pursuit of truth, orientation toward good and valuing of beauty have become an irreversible and natural trend.

The following is the main content of the thesis:

1.The Pursuit of Truth: Cultivating Intellectuality as a Function of Medical Science History

1.1 The Cultivation of the Spirit of Science

1.2 The Cultivation of the Critical Spirit

1.3 The Cultivation of Ways of Thinking

1.4 The Cultivation of Innovative Capacities

2.The Pursuit of Good: Fostering Good as a Function of Medical Science History

2.1. The Fostering of Sense of Responsibility

2.2 The Fostering of Sense of Sympathy

2.3 The Fostering of Sense of Enterprise

3.The Cultural Spirit: Cultivating Beauty as a Function of Medical Science History

3.1 The Cultivation of Non-logical Ways of Thinking

3.2 The Cultivation of Esthetic View on Life

4.The Education of Medical Science History in Medical Colleges and Universities

4.1The Demand of the Education of Humanity Qualities in Medicine

4.2The Need of the Development of Medical Technology

4.3The Need of the Results of the Present Scientific Research